1419: Discovery of Madeira
In this year the island of Madeira was discovered by Portuguese explorers João Gonçalves Zarco, Bartolomeu Perestrelo and Tristão Vaz Teixeira. Oddly enough, a map from 1351 exists on which Madeira is specified. This means that earlier navigators have found Madeira, but apparently no one has claimed the island.
1425 : Madeira becomes Portuguese territory, the first residents arrive
The first settlers arrived in 1425 and in that year Madeira was officially declared a Portuguese territory. The island was called ” ilho do Madeira”: woodland island. As it was practice at that time, prisoners were deployed to make the island suitable for habitants. To this end, areas of forest were burnt, thus creating a genesis of very fertile soil. That first fire lasted 7 years! Then the terraces were built on the steep slopes. In 1425, Madeira was officially declared as being a part of Portugal.
1450: introduction of vines
The instigator for the exploration of Madeira was Enrique el Navegador. He himself traveled to Madeira and in 1450 he decided that there had to be viticulture on Madeira. The first vines came from Crete: the grapes that are stil in production today were “Malvasia Candida”. This grape variety with high sugar content is mainly used to make sweet wines and can be found anywhere around the Mediterranean and in Portugal. Nowadays this grape variety is mainly replaced by the Malvasia São Jorge. The first official quality wine of Madeira was declared in 1455 and in 1537 the first madeira wine was exported to the United Kingdom.
The first lavadas were built in 1461: long channels in the mountains, taking water from the wet north to the dry south. In total there are 2150 kilometers levadas, of which 40 km in tunnels. These channels have made agriculture possible everywhere in the south of Madeira. The levadas however must be maintained: rocks and earth from landslides, fallen trees and leaves should be removed. Besides the levadas there are trails for maintenance. 300 km levadas footpaths are made accessible for tourists today, so one can walk through the spectacular scenery: passing waterfalls, walking through eucalyptus forests and sometimes on steep slopes.
15th and 16th century: sugar cane
Although vines existed from the first settlements, they were of no importance. In these days, sugar can was the main export article. There are stil three factories om Madeira that produce rum from sugar cane. The ‘Egenhos do Norte’ factory uses a giant steam machine for the whole process.
17th century : the golden age of Madeira wine
Madeira had become a very important place for international trade. Ships used the island as a stopover on trips between Europe, North America, Central and South America and India. Unfortunately for Madeira a large quantity of cane sugar was brought in with ships from South America, decreasing the sugar price. As a result, at the end of the 16th century the rise and fame of Madeira wine started. At his peak there were more than 2500 hectares of vineyards on Madeira. Today, this is diminished to only 445 hectares.
1650: Vinho da Roda
Madeira wine was used as ballast for the sailing ships through their journeys to India and South America. It was also a safe drink, and part of the sailor’s wages. And sometimes it was used to defuse mutiny.
The long journey in the warm trice climate simmered the wine slowly. Every wine gets totally damaged by this process, but Madeira wine only benefits from it. After returning to Madeira, these wines were called Vinho da Roda (wine in movement) or “Ritorna Viajem’ Wines of the round voyage. Also, a considerable part of Madeira was consumed in India itself. In 1805 at total of 6,260 pipes (each 480 liters) were exported to India, which at that time was half of the total export.
A pipe of Madeira that returned from the long journey was been romanticized: it was believed to hold the character of the ship. Many Madeira pipes received the name of the ship when they were sold, such as Three Deacons, Comet, and Southern Cross.
1660: Navigation Act
A British law stipulated that goods should only be transported to English colonies by English boats, with the exception of Madeira wine, which apparently was always welcome. This gave Madeira wines a competitive advantage over other wines.
1753: Madeira becomes a fortified wine
Initially Madeira was an unfortified wine, like port and sherry. It were mainly the English and the Portuguese who traded and shipped these wines. Along the long during journeys on sailboats the wines suffered from heat and oxygen and many wines decayed. The wine traders then discovered that the addition of alcohol above 15 % protects the wines (all micro-organisms being yeasts, molds and bacteria die when the alcohol content reaches 15%) and this became common practice as from 1753. In the beginning winemakers used fermented and distillled cane juice (in fact, a kind of rum). However, this affects the taste of wine and later on only grape distillate was permitted.
4th of July 1776: Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.
Famous American presidents and politicians were passionate Madeira wine drinkers, like George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. The signing of the Declaration of Independence of America on July 4, 1776 ended with a glass of Malmsey Madeira. It’s said that George Washington drank a pint of Madeira per day.
Shakespeare, Napoleon and Churchill were great lovers of Madeira. The Duke of Clarence chose for his execution in the Tower of London to be drowned in a barrel Madeira. To him, it seemed the perfect end of his life.
Pantaleão Fernandez devised the first estufagem system. Instead of shipping the wine to warme places around the world, it can also mature at a warm place at home. “Stufa” is Portuguese for stewing .
1851: adversity caused by diseases
The importation of American vines led to the introduction of a number of devastating vine-diseases. In 1851 the first fungal disease emerged : mildew (odium). The grapes were covered with a white powder and died.
Some years later another disease reached the island: the downy mildew, a fungal disease.
After some years the remedies against it were found: spraying with respectively sulfur, and a mixture of copper and sulfur.
1872: Phyloxera, the distroyer
The most devastating disease however was caused by a louse called phylloxera Vastatrix, “the Destroyer”, that first hit Madeira in 1872. The Phyloxera lice eats the juice of the roots and to be able to do so, they drills holes in the vine roots, causing a form of cancer to the vine. As happened in the whole of Europe, almost the entire wine-growing was lost. A solution was found by replacing the original vine by American vines, who are resistant to phylloxera. This American grapes can quickly fix the holes in their root-system. These wines are called ” Vino Americano “. The problem with this solution is that the wines of American vines have an unpleasant taste known as “foxy” which is best described as excessively perfumed.
Finally, a definite solution for phyloxera was found by grafting the original vines on American rootstocks. The rootstocks are resistant to Phylloxera while the grafts of European grape varieties present the wanted quality. For replanting, large-scale use was made of tinta negra, a grape that is less susceptible to diseases, it also grows just about everywhere.
1850 – 1875: Flee of British wine merchants
The diseases reducing the vineyards to virtually zero leaded to a flee of the mainly British merchants. In 1850, the total yield of the must (raw juice) was 50 million hectoliters, which ran quickly back. In 1853: 3 million hectoliters, in 1854: 600 hectoliters. The once flourishing trade with America was reduced to only 16 pipes (of 480 liters) in the year 1875.
1896: Suez canal and political setback
In 1896 the Suez Canal was openend, through which the major shipping routes were diverted and therefore Madeira no longer lies on the main routes. In 1927 was the break out of the Russian Revolution. And from 1920 to 1934 the Prohibition ruled America, the ban on alcohol. These combined events dramatically reduced Madeira wine exports.
20th century: Madeira became a cooking wine
61 % of Madeira wine is made with estufagem, the rapid heating, using the tinta negra grape. These wines may come on the market after three years. There is little production of high quality wines and Madeira wines are world wide renowned wine for cooking, used in stews and sauces.
1907: A defined wine region
Madeira and Porto Santo together become a recognized wine region: Region Vinicola da Madeira.
1908: Strict legislation
In this year laws were passed that protect Madeira as a unique wine against all kinds of fraud. With this, Madeira wine was saved from collapse, it was the start of the road back to success.
1967: Fortification with grape distillate
From this year, only pure alcohol of 96%, distilled from the fermented juice of grapes, can be used to fortify Madeira wine.
1980: End of sale of hybrid wines
From that year onwards, wines made from hybrid grapes may still be produced for private use, but may no longer be sold, in order to protect the reputation of Madeira wines.
1986: Portugal in the EU: the POSEI program
Portugal’s entry to the EU has probably been the salvation of Madeira wine. “Posei” is a EU program to support economic zones that are facing difficult times such as the Azores, Madeira and Gran Canaria. It supplies funds such for the production of agricultural goods such as wine, spirits, bananas, sugar cane, milk. Madeira wine makers benefit from this funding when purchasing cane sugar, in the cultivating of wine grapes, and maturation and sales of the wines.
For Madeira’s wine producers, the support on wine aging is particularly important: a winemaker receives € 0.05 per hectolitre per day for maturing wine, on condition that the wine is kept in the barrel for 5 years. That is approximately € 0.70 per bottle. And the grape grower receives € 1 per kg for growing the ‘recommended’ grape varieties.
The ‘Instituto do Vinho, do Bordado and Artesanato da Madeira’ was established. They keep control over all aspects of viticulture and wine making, advising and promoting Madeira wine.
The 21st century: : quality awareness
There is a lively discussion about the quality of the Tinta Negra, the grape that accounts for 85 % of all vines planted at Madeira. Tinta negra is the grape for all estufagem wines, the simple quality wine which is mainly used in the kitchen. But winemakers already have proven that this grape variety also accounts for good quality wines. Recently the tinta negra grape may be mentioned on a label of Colheita, a quality wine.
Upcoming markets for Madeira wine today are the Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland and China. Most wine connoisseurs have little experience with Madeira. Without exception, wine lovers are enthusiastic as they taste the fine quality wines. Madeira wine producers supported by the IVBAM are organizing an annually tour of Europe to present their wines. It is expected that the demand for these quality wines will increase. There is an expression for these very labour-intensive wines with their unique character: